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自幼养马,画马,徐悲鸿再传弟子,师从当代画马大家韦江凡。 出版画马专著多种,代表作,万马图。六百征程图。卸鞍图。奋进图等

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2010年4月24日  

2010-04-24 08:39:38|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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9-2
Muscles
The muscle 1 (levator nasolabialis) controls the opening and closing,
extending and contracting of the nose and mouth. The muscle 2
(caninus) raises the mouth corner to expose the canine tooth. The
muscle 3 (orbicularis oris) controls the movements of the lips. The
muscle 4 (masseter) shows clear contraction when the horse bites and
chews. The muscles 5, 6, 7 and 8 determine the raising, lowering and
turning of the neck. The muscles 9, 10 and 13 tighten up, showing a
clear line of demarcation when the horse bears a heavy load or makes
a rapid movement. The muscles 11 and 12 control movements of the
joints of the fore legs. The muscle 14 (obliquus externus abdominis)
contracts, to bend and turn the lumbar vertebrae. The muscles 15,
16, 17 and 18 contract and extend to provide the horse with strength
to move ahead. Usually there is clear divide between the muscle 17
(semitendinosus) and the muscle 18 (biceps femoris). The muscle 19
(flexor muscle of toes) controls the movements of the hind hoofs.
136 Chinese Animal Painting for Beginners
9-3 Muscles of the horse
9-4 Bones and muscles in the horse’s head
1. bones in the horse’s head
2. muscles in the horse’s head
3. the horse’s nose and lips in usual state
4. when the horse’s nose is contracted
5. when the horse’s nostril is expanded
6. when the horse’s nose is pressed
7. the horse’s lips, especially the upper lip, move deftly
8. the horse’s tongue can change its shape and width
drastically
Steps for Painting Four-footed Animals 137
9-5
1. positions of the major bones in
the horse’s neck
2. there is a deep divide between
the two major muscles linking
the head at one end with the leg
and chest at the other
3. the creases in the muscles
in the neck of a horse when the
muscles are relaxed
4. when the horse bends its neck
5. when the horse turns its neck
138 Chinese Animal Painting for Beginners
9-6 The chewing muscle
– masseter
1. The strong muscle
has clusters of fibres.
2. When relaxed, no veins
are seen.
3. When the horse chews,
tense veins are seen.
The shapes of muscles change with the horse’s postures and
movements. (9-7-1, 9-7-2)
9-7-1 9-7-2
Steps for Painting Four-footed Animals 139
9-8
1. The major muscles on the front limb
of the horse change their shapes as the
horse makes different movements.
2, 3. When the horse is in a static
posture, demarcations among the
deltoid, the triceps brachi and the
common extensor digitorum are visible.
4, 5. When the horse is in movement, all
muscles in this part show protuberances
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